MA Hillingdon - MA programs Hillingdon - MA Hillingdon

MA Hillingdon - MA programs Hillingdon - MA Hillingdon

ปริญญาโท

ปริญญาโทมีหลากหลายมากกว่าคุณวุฒิปริญญาเอกและมีความหลากหลายของการใช้งานระดับมืออาชีพและนักวิชาการ ตามที่สหรัฐอเมริกากรมสามัญศึกษาสามประเภทของโปรแกรมปริญญาโทอยู่วิจัยมืออาชีพและขั้ว ปริญญาโทที่นิยมมากที่สุดชนิดมีการศึกษาระดับปริญญาศิลปศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต (MA) และวิทยาศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต (MS) ในส่วนผสมของเขตข้อมูลเรื่อง

สหราชอาณาจักร, สหราชอาณาจักรเป็นมากกว่า 300 ปีและประกอบด้วยสี่ประเทศที่เป็นส่วนประกอบ ได้แก่ อังกฤษสกอตแลนด์เวลส์และไอร์แลนด์เหนือ สหราชอาณาจักรได้รับการเป็นศูนย์กลางของการเรียนรู้ที่ผ่านมา 1,000 ปีและมีมหาวิทยาลัยที่เก่าแก่และมีความโดดเด่นหลาย นักศึกษาต่างชาติทำขึ้นสัดส่วนที่สำคัญของนักศึกษาในมหาวิทยาลัยในสหราชอาณาจักร

MA Hillingdon - Take your MA Hillingdon. Get all MA program and school information. Save time and contact the school directly here!

อ่านเพิ่มเติม

MA Military History

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 12 - 30  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

This Military History MA offers an in-depth study of warfare on land, sea and air across a range of periods and continents, from the Classical Age to the present. [+]

. About the course This Military History MA offers an in-depth study of warfare on land, sea and air across a range of periods and continents, from the Classical Age to the present. The core modules on the course examine: the Royal Navy in the twentieth century. warfare in ancient and medieval times. the impact of the French and Industrial Revolutions on warfare in the age of 'total war'. Optional modules give students the opportunity to study the Second World War, warfare in modern Africa and, additionally, the programme draws on Brunel’s expertise in intelligence studies. Sudents have the chance to take an optional module in this area with Brunel's Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies (BCISS). Students will also complete a 15,000 dissertation on any military history topic, drawing on the wide expertise of staff in the department. Aims The MA in Military History will provide students with a systematic understanding and critical awareness of debates and interpretations of military history. Students will gain a comprehensive and practical understanding of how established techniques of research and enquiry are used to create and interpret knowledge in specific subject areas. Students will be encouraged to extend and develop their analytical, evaluative and critical capacities, and increase their ability to reflect on their own learning and intellectual development. The MA in Military History will give students transferable skills in writing, discussion, analysis, and independent judgement. Students will also work independently, thus demonstrating initiative and the ability to organise their time and work... [-]

MA International Relations

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 12 - 30  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

International Relations presents policy-makers and scholars with a wide range of issues that require analysis and evaluation. Students graduating with a Master’s degree in International Relations will be equipped to understand and interpret these issues more deeply and to think creatively about the challenges facing the world in the 21st Century. [+]

About the course International Relations presents policy-makers and scholars with a wide range of issues that require analysis and evaluation. Students graduating with a Master’s degree in International Relations will be equipped to understand and interpret these issues more deeply and to think creatively about the challenges facing the world in the 21st Century. Students on this course will benifit from: Research-led teaching: courses on the International Relations MA are designed and taught by international renowned researchers in International Relations, Contemporary History, and Law. The department hosts an active guest lecture series featuring leading scholars and thinkers in the area of International Relations, Politics, and History. Students takings the Brunel MA in International Relations will have the opportunity to become members of the leading British think-tank, Chatham House. Aims The Brunel MA in International Relations will develop your knowledge of this evolving discipline and will provide you with the opportunity to study topics across its key sub-fields. Special Features Courses are designed and taught by world-renowned experts in politics, international relations, public policy and contemporary history. The department has a distinctive concentration of expertise in the history of modern political thought. We have close links with government, industry, and international organisations, with guest lectures from key political, intelligence, and business figures, as well as placement opportunities in some courses. Academic staff are dedicated to furthering knowledge in their particular fields. Teaching and Assessment Assessment Assessment varies by essay, dissertation and examination. A Master’s degree is awarded if you reach the... [-]

MA Intelligence and Security Studies (Distance Learning)

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Online & Campus Combined เต็มเวลา September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge

Taught by the internationally respected scholars of the Brunel Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, backed up where required by practitioner expertise, the MA in Intelligence and Security Studies (MA ISS) now available by Distance Learning) offers a unique opportunity for practical, policy-oriented graduate study of intelligence issues applicable across the private and public sectors around the world. [+]

. About the course Intelligence and security policy issues are now one of the fastest growing areas of academic and public concern, especially since '9/11' and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Today more than ever before national governments, international agencies and most major international corporations have an identified need for staff with a strong grasp of intelligence and security issues who can also demonstrate first-rate skills of research and assessment. Taught by the internationally respected scholars of the Brunel Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, backed up where required by practitioner expertise, the MA in Intelligence and Security Studies (MA ISS) now available by Distance Learning) offers a unique opportunity for practical, policy-oriented graduate study of intelligence issues applicable across the private and public sectors around the world. Aims This course will be of value to individuals seeking to go into security-oriented careers in both the private sectors, as well as to individuals engaged in the security professions who seek further qualifications and professional enhancement. A distinctive feature of the course lies in its combining the rigorous study of intelligence and security policy studies with practical opportunities to develop intelligence skills through case studies and simulation exercises dealing with intelligence analysis. Special Features BCISS The Brunel Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies is Britain's first academic centre dedicated to intelligence scholarship and policy-analysis. It includes one of Britain's most innovative scholars in the field, Dr Philip H J Davies, as well Dr Kristian Gustafson (director of the MA programme),... [-]

MA Intelligence and Security Studies

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 12 - 30  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

Taught by the internationally respected scholars of the Brunel Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, backed up where required by practitioner expertise, the MA in Intelligence and Security Studies offers a unique opportunity for practical, policy-oriented graduate study of intelligence issues applicable across the private and public sectors around the world. [+]

About the course Intelligence and security policy issues are now one of the fastest growing areas of academic and public concern, especially since '9/11' and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Today more than ever before national governments, international agencies and most major international corporations have an identified need for staff with a strong grasp of intelligence and security issues who can also demonstrate first-rate skills of research and assessment. Taught by the internationally respected scholars of the Brunel Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, backed up where required by practitioner expertise, the MA in Intelligence and Security Studies offers a unique opportunity for practical, policy-oriented graduate study of intelligence issues applicable across the private and public sectors around the world. Attendance for lectures full-time: 2 days per week - for 24 weeks Attendance for lectures part-time: 1 day per week - for 24 weeks (in each of 2 years) Aims This course will be of value to individuals seeking to go into security-oriented careers in both the private and public sectors. It is suitable to individuals engaged in the security professions who seek further qualifications and professional enhancement. A distinctive feature of the course lies in its combining the rigorous study of intelligence and security policy studies with practical opportunities to develop intelligence skills through case studies and simulation exercises dealing with intelligence analysis. Special Features The Brunel Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies is Britain's first academic centre dedicated to intelligence scholarship and policy-analysis. It includes one of... [-]

MA English Literature

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 2  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

The MA in English Literature at Brunel University London offers a combination of various approaches to the study of literary texts, including the historical, author-oriented readings, periodization and a postmillennial focus. It is underpinned by certain core issues: identity, culture and literary engagement; historical contexts; the ideological and social function of literature; exploring self and others through literary forms and genres; how we might more effectively read texts and the world. [+]

. About the course The MA in English Literature at Brunel University London offers a combination of various approaches to the study of literary texts, including the historical, author-oriented readings, periodization and a postmillennial focus. It is underpinned by certain core issues: identity, culture and literary engagement; historical contexts; the ideological and social function of literature; exploring self and others through literary forms and genres; how we might more effectively read texts and the world. The course offers the opportunity to study a range of topics and periods including the contemporary, and it is designed to appeal to you if: you are preparing to undertake further research in literary studies; wishing to take your general studies in English literature to the next level; or, hoping to enhance your career prospects. The introductory module, Reading, Research & Writing, reinforces and further develops all the required skills and competencies relevant to literary studies, ensuring that from the third term you will be able to pursue self-directed research on an agreed topic of your choice and submit a 15,000 word dissertation. Aims You will explore the diversity of literary and cultural production through innovative modules designed to cross disciplinary, historical, and geographical boundaries, thereby offering a wide scope within which students of the master’s can develop their own interests. The MA in English Literature will equip you with a detailed and sophisticated understanding of English and related literatures. It will support your critical and creative engagement with issues central to and at the... [-]

MA Creative Writing

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 2  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

MA Creative Writing at Brunel University London is designed for writers who want to express their creativity in a number of forms – novels, film scripts, poems, journalism – rather than specialise in only one. [+]

About the course MA Creative Writing at Brunel University London is designed for writers who want to express their creativity in a number of forms – novels, film scripts, poems, journalism – rather than specialise in only one. The Creative Writing master's course will appeal to writers who wish to try out a number of areas before deciding which they are best at or those who already know their strongest form, but feel the need to gain expertise in other fields to fund their speciality. In addition, the course provides instruction on writing in the community, creative writing teaching and the organisation and funding of arts events. We seek to create a supportive but constructively critical environment for circulating and evaluating students’ creative and journalistic work and to foster a broad span of creative and critical writing skills, including the ability to work independently on a long creative/critical project. All applications should include a sample of writing. Aims This degree will give you instruction and practice in a broad range not only of writing forms, but also of strategies and techniques within those forms. You will be introduced to the latest theories of creativity and up-to-date thinking on literary and journalistic genres. We seek to create a supportive but constructively critical environment for circulating and evaluating students’ creative and journalistic work and to foster a broad span of creative and critical writing skills, including the ability to work independently on a long creative/critical project. The Creative Writing master's programme will... [-]

MA Children, Youth and International Development

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge

This programme is unique within the UK in catering specifically for those working, or interested in working, in the field of children, youth and international development. The Children, Youth and International Development MA will equip you with the conceptual understanding and breadth of empirical knowledge to critically evaluate policy and practice in the area of children, youth and development. [+]

. About the course This programme is unique within the UK in catering specifically for those working, or interested in working, in the field of children, youth and international development. The Children, Youth and International Development MA will equip you with the conceptual understanding and breadth of empirical knowledge to critically evaluate policy and practice in the area of children, youth and development. The core modules focus on key issues relating to children, youth and international development, including the rights and participation of young people. They also prepare students in research design and practice. The optional modules offer a unique opportunity to appreciate in depth how children and youth-related issues are addressed from alternative disciplinary perspectives. Aims Working with and for young people in the Global South offers an exciting career full of challenges and rewards. This MA provides a varied programme with a global perspective that equips students for roles at senior levels in international development organisations, government ministries and global agencies. The programme equips you with: The conceptual understanding and breadth of empirical knowledge that will enable you to critically evaluate research, policy and practice in the area of children, youth and development. An understanding of differing disciplinary perspectives on childhood and youth, and their theoretical and empirical contributions. The skills necessary to design and undertake research relating to children, youth and international development. Methodological, cognitive and transferable skills and substantive knowledge that will prepare you for employment, further study and civic engagement. Special Features High value placements:... [-]

MA Design Strategy and Innovation

Brunel University: College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 3  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

This unique international, multi-disciplinary course will develop design managers and leaders as catalysts for strategic innovation and change. [+]

This unique international, multi-disciplinary course will develop design managers and leaders as catalysts for strategic innovation and change. The programme comprises compulsory modules of theoretical and analytical topics in areas such as innovation, creativity, team-working and leadership. Special features include analytical design exercises, multimedia educational material, research methods, case studies, design audits and international placements. The aim of the course is to create closer links between design and industry and to widen the horizons of design management students, enabling you to make informed reference to the world beyond design – to users, the market, new technology, economics, politics, law and the global environment. Aims All organisations use design, but few master its use strategically. This course provides the skills and knowledge to students wishing to enter this exciting and rewarding field of endeavour. This innovative course was one of the first Master’s programmes - globally - that sought to explain the relationship between innovation and design and the importance of applying a strategic approach using design thinking, design methods and process. Today we remain a unique course internationally and attract students from all over the world, from different creative and design backgrounds, both with one purpose…to become masters of design strategy. By the time you graduate you will be equipped to: apply thinking, design methods and process to identify opportunities for innovation and drive changes in commercial, public and/or no-for-profit organisations explore how strategic design could be used to deliver a whole spectrum of innovation ranging from an innovative business... [-]

MA Design and Branding Strategy

Brunel University: College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 3  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

This MA prepares students from design and other creative disciplines to apply their knowledge and skills in the branding domain. [+]

. This MA prepares students from design and other creative disciplines to apply their knowledge and skills in the branding domain. The course develops your high-level skills and creative thinking, helping you learn how to clearly communicate strategies for successful brand building, futures forecasting and change management. During the course you will also gain valuable industry insight from design and branding professionals who are part of Brunel’s extensive network of industry contacts. You will complete an individual design project, supported by personal supervision, and complete a final year dissertation on your specialist subject of choice. Aims All organisations use design, but few master its use strategically. This course provides the skills and knowledge to students wishing to enter this exciting and rewarding field of endeavour. We were one of the first Masters programmes, globally, that sought to explain the relationship between branding and design and the importance of applying a strategic approach using design thinking, design methods and process. Today we remain a unique course internationally and attract students from all over the world, from different creative and design backgrounds, both with one purpose - to become masters of design strategy. By the time you graduate you will be equipped to: effectively apply design to create and deliver innovative brand propositions creatively communicate brand values and deliver brand experiencein engaging and meaningful ways through a combination of tangible and intangle design demonstrate expertise in your chosen specialism in exciting fields, such as branding for the collaborative economy critically evaluate the... [-]

MA Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Society

Brunel University: College of Health and Life Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 12 - 30  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

The Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Society MA is designed to provide students with training in classical and contemporary psychoanalytic theory. It observes the relation between theory and practice and establishes a scientific grounding through its emphasis on the clinical writings of Freud, Klein and Lacan. [+]

How are our behaviours influenced by unconscious motives? Which conflicts lie at the heart of contemporary individual and social problems? What explains our cultural and ideological obsession with power and violence? The Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Society MA is designed to provide students with training in classical and contemporary psychoanalytic theory. It observes the relation between theory and practice and establishes a scientific grounding through its emphasis on the clinical writings of Freud, Klein and Lacan. The course also offers the opportunity to develop a psychoanalytic approach to contemporary socio-cultural issues, in particular questions of political ideology, social conflict and violence. It engages with the relation between the psychoanalytic and social fields by exploring how to conceive of a psychoanalytic social theory. It questions how we can provide a specifically psychoanalytic account of social relations and focuses on issues raised by post-structuralist and feminist accounts of sexuality. Aims This degree is relevant to a wide range of graduates in the social sciences, humanities and fine art, as well as those with professional interests in psychotherapy and analysis who wish to develop and apply their skills to the issues and areas on which this degree focuses. Previous and current students have included art and film students, teachers and art historians as well as psychologists and analysts - and recently included a performance artist. Many European and overseas students from Latin America and further afield have also undertaken this degree. Course Content The course engages with the issue of the relation between the... [-]

MA Social Work

Brunel University: College of Health and Life Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge

The Social Work MA programme aims to educate and train individuals to be reflective, research-minded practitioners who are able to work critically and professionally and in accordance with the principle of anti-oppressive practice. [+]

. The Social Work MA programme aims to educate and train individuals to be reflective, research-minded practitioners who are able to work critically and professionally and in accordance with the principle of anti-oppressive practice. Graduates who successfully complete this programme are eligible to apply for Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) registration. The professional and academic elements are closely integrated throughout the programme. There are 170 placement days, with the working week divided between time in placement and time in the University. Aims This MA Social Work degree programme aims to provide high quality post graduate social work education and training to equip students with comprehensive pre-entry skills to work in any agency employing social workers in the United Kingdom. Although the statutory sector is the major employer, increasingly social workers are being recruited into volutary and private sectors in a variety of service provision roles including community-based, residential or day care services in the UK and abroad. The programme seeks to encourage the personal responsibility of students to function as independent learners and to develop a critical and reflective appreciation of the role of social work in society. The curriculum provides teaching in both academic and practice elements, which are fully integrated at Brunel University London. It is designed to ensure that learning occurs in an incremental way, with learning outcomes that develop across levels enabling students to demonstrate progression in professional knowledge, skills and values through two years of study. Specifically, the programme aims to: prepare students for... [-]

สื่อสารมวลชนแม่ (nctj ได้รับการรับรอง)

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 2  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

วารสารศาสตร์ของบรูเนลแมสซาชูเซตมีการผสมผสานเอกลักษณ์ของทักษะที่ทันสมัย​​และการเรียนรู้ตามบริบท วางแผนในการหารือกับนักข่าวอาวุโสหลักสูตรให้รากฐานอย่างเข้มงวดเพื่ออาชีพสื่อสารมวลชน [+]

วารสารศาสตร์ของบรูเนลแมสซาชูเซตมีการผสมผสานเอกลักษณ์ของทักษะที่ทันสมัยและการเรียนรู้ตามบริบท วางแผนในการหารือกับนักข่าวอาวุโสหลักสูตรให้รากฐานอย่างเข้มงวดเพื่ออาชีพสื่อสารมวลชน นักเรียนจะได้รับการฝึกอบรมในการพิมพ์ / สื่อสารมวลชนออนไลน์ที่มีตัวเลือกที่จะมีความเชี่ยวชาญในการสื่อสารมวลชนออกอากาศในระยะที่สอง ... [-]


แม่ในทฤษฎีเกมดิจิตอลและการออกแบบ

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 2  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

โปรแกรมที่น่าตื่นเต้นนี้แม่ในทฤษฎีเกมดิจิตอลและการออกแบบจะช่วยให้คุณมีส่วนร่วมในและทดสอบกับการออกแบบเกมในทางปฏิบัติ ร่วมกันเราจะสำรวจช่วงของทฤษฎีและแนวคิดที่ ... [+]

โปรแกรมที่น่าตื่นเต้นนี้แม่ในทฤษฎีเกมดิจิตอลและการออกแบบจะช่วยให้คุณมีส่วนร่วมในและทดสอบกับการออกแบบเกมในทางปฏิบัติ ร่วมกันเราจะสำรวจช่วงของทฤษฎีและแนวความคิดที่จะวิเคราะห์ค่าต่างๆของการเล่นเกมและความสุขและกลับไปที่ 'พื้นฐาน ' โดยพิจารณาสิ่งที่ที่ทำให้ 'ดี ' การเล่นเกม ... [-]


แม่ในการทำผลการดำเนินงานร่วมสมัย

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 2  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

นวัตกรรมนี้ MA - ทำผลการดำเนินงานร่วมสมัยที่เหลืออยู่กับสิ่งอำนวยความสะดวกและความเชี่ยวชาญทั้งที่บรูเนลและทรัพยากรที่หลากหลายของกรุงลอนดอนจะช่วยให้คุณมีพื้นที่ ... [+]

นี้เป็นนวัตกรรมใหม่ MA - ทำผลการดำเนินงานร่วมสมัยที่เหลืออยู่กับสิ่งอำนวยความสะดวกและความเชี่ยวชาญที่บรูเนลและทรัพยากรที่หลากหลายของกรุงลอนดอนจะช่วยให้คุณมีพื้นที่ที่จะบ่มเพาะความคิดสร้างสรรค์ของคุณผ่านการตรวจสอบข้อเท็จจริงในทางปฏิบัติและความสำคัญของการปฏิบัติงานร่วมสมัยรวมทั้งศิลปะสดศิลปะดิจิตอล การเขียนและการกำกับการปฏิบัติงาน หลักสูตรนี้จะอยู่ที่ประมาณ 70% การปฏิบัติและทฤษฎี 30% และโปรแกรมที่เหมาะสำหรับการฝึกการพัฒนาศิลปินทำงานของตัวเอง นักเรียนที่จบการศึกษาได้ไปในที่จะแสดงผลงานของพวกเขาในระดับประเทศและต่างประเทศทำงานร่วมกับ บริษัท ที่สำคัญในสหราชอาณาจักรและต่างประเทศที่มีความปลอดภัยและการระดมทุนและการสนับสนุนของพวกเขาสำหรับการทำงาน นักศึกษาเต็มเวลาสามารถใช้การเรียนการสอนกว่าหนึ่งปีเต็ม... [-]


แม่การเขียนเชิงสร้างสรรค์ - นวนิยาย

Brunel University: College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences
Campus เต็มเวลา นอกเวลา 1 - 2  September 2018 ประเทศอังกฤษ Uxbridge + เพิ่มขึ้น 1

เราได้ออกแบบนี้นวนิยายแมสซาชูเซตในการเขียนเชิงสร้างสรรค์ค่อนข้างง่ายที่จะสอนทุกอย่างที่เราคิดนักเขียนนวนิยายใหม่ควรจะรู้ มันรวมความสำคัญกับทักษะการเขียนนิยายยาวเต็มรูปแบบที่มีการตรวจสอบข้อเท็จจริงที่ชัดเจนตาของขั้นตอนการประกาศและสาขาที่เกี่ยวข้องความคิดสร้างสรรค์ [+]

เราได้ออกแบบนี้นวนิยายแมสซาชูเซตในการเขียนเชิงสร้างสรรค์ค่อนข้างง่ายที่จะสอนทุกอย่างที่เราคิดนักเขียนนวนิยายใหม่ควรจะรู้ มันรวมความสำคัญกับทักษะการเขียนนิยายยาวเต็มรูปแบบที่มีการตรวจสอบข้อเท็จจริงที่ชัดเจนตาของขั้นตอนการประกาศและสาขาที่เกี่ยวข้องความคิดสร้างสรรค์ แมสซาชูเซตนี้ได้ดึงดูดความสนใจอย่างมากในหมู่ผู้จัดพิมพ์และตัวแทนวรรณกรรมหลายคนมีส่วนร่วมอย่างแข็งขันในโปรแกรม ... [-]